When I threw out my textbook, I really wanted to jump right into planning. Just tell me what to do, on a day-to-day basis, please!
The WHY has to come first, though. Even really good materials can go wrong when the teacher doesn’t know why she’s doing what she’s doing. So I spent a lot of time studying up on HOW students learn language and WHERE we were going as a class. Once you have that down, it’s finally time to look at methods, materials, and strategies.
When I looked at what was out there, I felt lost in a sea of acronyms. Everyone seemed to be preaching his or her method, and showing off the student success I yearned for. Was TPRS® the only right way? Should I spend my summers hunting down authentic resources? And really, is an IPA a beer or a method?
I’ve come to the conclusion that a mix works best for me. Bottom line: I have to know my students, know myself, and know my goals. I also to work with my school. When I was trying to figure out what method to follow, I was afraid there was one magic approach that would solve my problems– and that I’d miss it! This is not exactly to say that methods don’t matter. Some support proficiency and deliver comprehensible better that others, but a lot depends on the teacher.
It’s also tempting to join a FB group, hear all the awesome things other teachers are doing, and want to do EVERYTHING, right now. My advice is to read up, and choose two or three strategies to begin with. Start there, and watch your students. What is bringing life to your class? What is supporting their proficiency?
This is why theory matters. A teacher who really gets where we’re going and how students acquire language will have a good instinct of what to do, whatever the materials at hand may be. I’m convinced that teaching tons of grammar and memorizing giant vocab lists in not the way to go, for sure. But I see that there are some different paths leading to similar destinations.
As a fellow beginner, I’d like to run down the list of popular methods and acronyms, give my opinion if I have one, and then point you to the experts I trust. If something resonates with you, start there. Some of these are little pieces of teaching and assessing language, and some are entire methods.
It’s important to note that Comprehensible Input is not a strategy or method. CI is more of a definition: messages that students understand.
TPRS® , PQA, MovieTalks, Picture Talks, and Novels, are all strategies I employ for providing compelling CI. Sometimes authentic resources fall under this category too, if they are on an appropriate level (targeting the chorus of an authentic song for novices, for example.) Even a grammar textbook will incorporate a certain amount of CI. El libro es grande. It’s just normally limited, out of context, and dry.
When I started to calling myself a “CI Teacher,” it really meant: I believe that students acquire language through CI. Therefore, I now employ strategies and methods that maximize exposure to quality CI. The methods and tools below are different vehicles for delivering comprehensible input.
Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling® is a collaborative method of storyasking, between the teacher and the class, and originally created by Blaine Ray. I rely on it heavily, though not exclusively or strictly. I found that by using student actors and creating a memorable story, the structures stuck. As in, I almost completely eliminated vocabulary quizzes, grammar exercises, and homework, with better results.
Many people picture it as a marathon of ridiculous stories, or repetitive questions. It can be, but it needn’t be. I highly recommend familiarizing yourself with TPRS and doing a training. Many other techniques utilize and build on the skills you’ll acquire through TPRS.
For Spanish 1 and 2, I story-ask about once a week unless we’re in a novel unit. It’s an exhausting day, but the stories remain so vivid that the follow-up activities, discussions, and readings usually go well.
Read & see more:
TPRS with Martina Bex
TPRS with Ben Slavic
What I Love About TPRS by Musicuentos
TPRS Strategies I Don’t Put in My Toolbox by Musicuentos
See an example of a unit built around storyasking once a week, from Martina Bex.
Authentic resources are materials from native speakers meant for native speakers, not learners. I LOVE a good authentic resource when I can find one. My absolute favorite is authentic songs or video clips that coincide with structures we’re learning.
Where I differ from the #authres movement is the assumption that authentic is always better, or that students will learn better Spanish. I am cautious when I hear of schools trying to base everything they do on authentic resources.
For upper-level classes, they are incredibly useful. For novices, it depends. I think #authres are best used when the end goal is very clear. For example, if I want the students to acquire Spanish efficiently, I’ll grab a novel written for students. If I want them to feel the thrill of reading a “real” Spanish text or work on finding the main idea, I’ll give them an authentic reading.
Too much dependence on #authres: Students acquire less. They have good real-word skills of finding the main idea, or recognizing vocabulary, but fewer internalized structures.
Too little exposure to #authres: students are frustrated that in real life that everything isn’t comprehensible. They are give up easily or lack the confidence to persevere in confusing situations.
Creative Language Class is an amazing resource for centering your lessons on #authres.
How to Find #authres on Social Media from Secondary Spanish Space
Authentic Resources vs Learner Materials from Musicuentos
Authentic Songs for Spanish 1, Spanish 2, and Advanced Spanish Classes
Integrated performance assessments reflect the ACTFL standards. They measure interpretive reading, interpretive listening, presentational writing, presentational speaking, and interpersonal communication. Instead of parsing sentences and conjugating verbs, the students interpret and respond to authentic resources.
In Spanish 1, I diverged a bit from my mainly-TPRS track to do a unit on food. My students travel sometimes or eat a Latino restaurants, and a themed food unit would help them be ready for real-life interactions. I decided to backwards design from an IPA at the end of the unit, in which we would read authentic restaurant menus and watch YouTube videos of recipes made by native speakers. Months after, I had students report back how they’d ordered for their whole family in Mexico, pleased as pie with themselves.
In this case, although I incorporated CI through readings and stories, I was deliberately targeting other skills. We used lots of authentic resources because the goals went beyond just acquisition: we were developing skills of getting the main idea from reading and listening to native speakers.
I am on the fence about IPAs, though that may be because I haven’t been trained to use them. They are far better than grammar-based tests. They do a great job of prepping for Spanish in the real world. They tend to produce confident students with real-world skills.
On the other hand, IPAs are a lot of work without being entirely authentic. The interpersonal section doesn’t reflect speaking with a native, and the #authres are still weeded through carefully, to find resources that are fairly understandable and appropriate. I feel like my free-writes or tests on learner materials (which are way less work on my end) give me an equally good sense of their proficiency levels. I think IPAs can be really great, as long as you are careful to provide rich input, and not just teach to the test.
My favorite way to teach Spanish is through novels created for earners. There’s huge selection available at Fluency Matters. You can develop a months-long unit based on the novel that incorporates culture and history, and read together as a class. Novels are also perfect for FVR (Free Voluntary Reading) or SSR (Sustained Silent Reading), and I often start class with 10 minutes of SSR/FVR.
Personalized Question and Answering is as old as the hills: talking with your students, about them and things that interest them. I had tried my hand at it from the beginning, but after seeing it done as a TPRS skill, I learned more how to make it comprehensible and compelling. It can be a way to create input around target structures leading into a story, and some skillful teachers can spend an entire period on PQA.
PQA is very simple and effective: ask students about themselves. Center the conversation on them. It gets in many reps, and is usually high-interest.
MovieTalk is another TPRS technique for delivering CI. I LOVE it. MovieTalk is basically narrating a video clip through comprehensible language. The teacher narrates the story, pauses, points, and ask questions as necessary. I actually like it better than storytelling, because it’s so compelling and you don’t have to come up with the story on your own.
After the MovieTalk, you can give readings of the story or do extension activities. I choose MovieTalks that show structures we’re learning and lend themselves to what we know.
OWL (Organic World Language) sounds amazing!– but I am not sure how to find out much information aside from attending a training directly from the organization (which I haven’t done). I do know it uses 100% TL, and tons of games, interactive activities, and movement. Several bloggers I follow incorporate OWL into their teaching:
I know nothing about Project-Based Learning, but Laura at PBL in the TL does!
Haven’t done One Word Images personally. Check out the videos below for more:
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